Mental Health and HIV
Almost every person faces mental health challenges at some point. Major stresses—like the death of a loved one, divorce, loss of a job, or moving—can have a major impact on mental health. Having a serious illness, like HIV, can be another source of major stress. You may find that a diagnosis of HIV challenges your sense of well-being or complicates existing mental health conditions. Sometimes, there may be difficulty in disclosing your HIV status to your friends and loved ones. That can cause emotional stress and impact your mental health and well-being. HIV and some opportunistic infections can also affect your nervous system and can lead to changes in your behavior.
Good mental health (your emotional, psychological, and social well-being) will help you live your life to the fullest and is essential to successfully treating HIV. To help manage your mental health, it is important to know when, how, and where to get help. Building a positive and supportive relationship with your health care provider is important. They can help you in making sure that you are achieving optimal mental health and well-being. Your health care provider can also refer you to a specialist such as a psychiatrist or therapist who can make recommendations for how you can manage your mental health concerns. Many mental health conditions are treatable and many people with mental health conditions recover completely.
How Is Depression Related to HIV?
One of the most common mental health conditions that people with HIV face is depression. Depression can range from mild to severe, and the symptoms of depression can affect your day-to-day life. Both HIV-related medical conditions and HIV medications can contribute to depression.
Symptoms can include:
- Feeling sad or anxious often or all the time
- Not wanting to do activities that used to be fun
- Feeling irritable‚ easily frustrated‚ or restless
- Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep
- Waking up too early or sleeping too much
- Eating more or less than usual or having no appetite
- Experiencing aches, pains, headaches, or stomach problems that do not improve with treatment
- Having trouble concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions
- Feeling tired‚ even after sleeping well
- Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
- Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself
Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description of specific mental health conditions and their symptoms, visit mentalhealth.gov.
How Can You Get Help in a Crisis?
At times, the problems of life can take a toll on people. Some might feel trapped, hopeless, or might wonder what they have to live for. If you are having thoughts like these or are thinking about hurting or killing yourself, know that you are not alone and that things can change.
The 988 Suicide and Crisis LifelineExit Disclaimer provides 24/7, free and confidential support for people in distress. If you’re thinking about suicide, are worried about a friend or loved one, or would like emotional support, call or text 988 or chat at 988lifeline.orgExit Disclaimer .
En Español: 1-888-628-9454.
For TTY users: Use your preferred relay service or dial 711 then 988. Or chat onlineExit Disclaimer.
Veterans: Call 988 or text 838255. Or use the veterans chat lineExit Disclaimer.
You can also:
- Call your HIV health care provider.
- Get help from another health care provider.
- Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
- Contact a minister, spiritual leader, or someone else in your faith community.
Talk to Your HIV Health Care Provider
Talk to your HIV health care provider if you are experiencing any of the symptoms above. Your provider may ask you some questions to assess how you are feeling and may prescribe medications to help with depression or anxiety or refer you to a mental health specialist.
If you are taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) or plan to take ART, consider the following:
- Sometimes ART can relieve your anxiety because knowing you are taking care of yourself can give you a sense of securing.
- However, some antiretroviral medications may cause symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, and may make some mental health issues worse. Talk to your health care provider to better understand how your HIV treatment might affect your mental health and if anything can be done to address the side effects.
- Some medicines for mental health conditions or mood disorders can interact with ART.
- When you don’t take your HIV medication, your mental health issues (like depression) may get worse.
Communicate openly and honestly with your health care provider about your mental health so that he or she can help you find the support you need. Discuss any changes in the way you are thinking, or how you are feeling about yourself and life in general.
Mental Health Providers and Programs
Because mental health conditions are common, many outlets can help you maintain good mental health. If you are having symptoms of depression or another mental health condition, talk to your health care provider, social worker, or case manager. These people can refer you to a mental health provider who can give you the care you need.
Types of mental health providers include:
- Psychiatrists: Medically trained physicians who treat mental health problems with various therapies, like talk therapy, and by prescribing medicine.
- Psychologists: Trained professionals who help people cope with life challenges and mental health problems with therapies, like talk therapy, but usually cannot prescribe medicines.
- Therapists: Mental health or marriage and family counselors who help people cope with life issues and mental health problems.
You may also choose to join a support group. Support groups include:
- Mental health support groups: An organized group of peers who meet in a safe and supportive environment to provide mental health support to members of the group.
- HIV support groups: An organized group of peers with HIV who meet in a safe and supportive environment to provide support to other people with HIV. Many HIV healthcare centers offer support groups for patients. Ask your HIV health care provider, patient navigator, or case worker about support groups that may be available at your clinic.
Work with a trained mental health professional to learn about treatment options such as therapy and/or medicine. You and your provider can develop a plan that will help you regain and maintain good mental health.
Other ways to help improve mental health and well-being include:
- Exercise: Regular exercise may help improve symptoms of depressionExit Disclaimer and decrease stress. When you exercise, your brain releases chemicals called endorphins. These chemicals help improve your mood.
- Meditation: Recent studies suggest that mindfulness meditation can help ease depression, anxiety, and stress.
- Other interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and stress management can help to promote your mental health.
You may find it helpful to create an action plan for your mental well-being. SAMHSA offers a free self-help guide you can use to create and maintain a wellness plan for yourself.
Where Can You Find Mental Health Services?
Many organizations have websites and telephone hotlines that can help you find treatment for mental health conditions. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)’s Find Help website provides a list of organizations and contact numbers that can help you find mental health treatment and support in your local area.