Approximately 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV today. About 14 percent of them (1 in 7) don’t know it and need testing.
HIV continues to have a disproportionate impact on certain populations, particularly racial and ethnic minorities and gay and bisexual men.
An estimated 38,000 new HIV infections still occur in the United States each year. These infections can be prevented.
- In 2018, 37,832 people received an HIV diagnosis in the U.S. and 6 dependent areas
- During 2010-2017, the annual number of new HIV diagnoses in the U.S. decreased 9 percent.
- HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed across states and regions. More than 50 percent of new diagnoses occurred in 48 counties; Washington, DC; and San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2016 and 2017.
Estimated New HIV Infections
New HIV infections (“HIV incidence”) refers to the estimated number of people who are newly infected with HIV during a year, which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a year. (Some people may have HIV for some time but not know it, so the year they are diagnosed may not be the same as the year they acquired HIV.)
According to the latest estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
Approximately 38,700 new HIV infections occurred in the United States in 2016. After about 5 years of substantial declines, the number of annual HIV infections began to level off in 2013, at about 39,000 infections per year.
CDC estimates that the decline in HIV infections has plateaued because effective HIV prevention and treatment are not adequately reaching those who could most benefit from them. These gaps remain particularly troublesome in rural areas and in the South and among disproportionately affected populations like African-Americans and Latinos.
- By age group, between 2010–2016, the annual number of HIV infections decreased among persons aged 13–24 and 45–54 but increased among persons aged 25–34. The number of infections remained stable among persons aged 33–44 and ≥55 years.
- By race/ethnicity, between 2010-2016, the annual number of HIV infections decreased among blacks/African Americans, whites, and persons of multiple races and remained stable for Asians and Hispanics/Latinos.
- By sex, between 2010-2016, the annual number of new HIV infections decreased among females but remained stable among males.
- By HIV transmission group, between 2010-2016, the annual number of HIV infections decreased among people who use injection drugs and among heterosexuals. New HIV infections remained stable at about 26,000 per year among gay and bisexual men, who account for most (about 70 percent) of new infections each year. However, there were differences by race/ethnicity and age.
New HIV Infections by Race and Transmission Group, U.S. 2010 vs. 2016
HIV diagnoses refers to the number of people who have received an HIV diagnosis during a year, regardless of when they acquired HIV. (Some people can live with HIV for years before they are diagnosed; others are diagnosed soon after infection.)
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
In 2018, 37,832 people received an HIV diagnosis in the United States and 6 dependent areas.a The annual number of new diagnoses decreased 11% from 2010 to 2017 among adults and adolescents in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. However, trends varied for different groups of people.
Gay and bisexual menb are the population most affected by HIV. In 2018:
- Gay and bisexual men accounted for 69% of all HIV diagnoses in the United States and 86% of diagnoses among males.c
- Black/African Americand gay and bisexual men accounted for the largest number of HIV diagnoses (9,499), followed by Hispanic/Latinose (7,543) and whites (6,423).
Among all gay and bisexual men, HIV diagnoses remained stable from 2010 to 2017, but trends varied by race/ethnicity:
- HIV diagnoses among Black/African American gay and bisexual men remained stable.
- HIV diagnoses among white gay and bisexual men decreased 19%.
- HIV diagnoses among Hispanics/Latino gay and bisexual men increased 17%.
Heterosexuals and people who inject drugs also continue to be affected by HIV. In 2018:
- Heterosexuals accounted for 24% of HIV diagnoses.f Heterosexual men accounted for 7% of HIV diagnoses, and heterosexual women accounted for 16% of HIV diagnoses.
- People who inject drugs accounted for 7% of HIV diagnoses.g Men who inject drugs accounted for 4% of HIV diagnoses, and women who inject drugs accounted for 3% of new diagnoses.
By race/ethnicity, Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos are disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2018:
- Blacks/African Americans accounted for 42% (16,067) of HIV diagnoses and 13% of the population.
- Hispanics/Latinos accounted for 27% (9,673) of HIV diagnoses and 18% of the population.
HIV Diagnoses by Race/Ethnicity, 2018
Across states and regions, HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed. In 2017, the South made up 52% (19,968) of the new HIV diagnoses in the U.S., followed by the West (7,270; 19%), the Northeast (6,011; 16%), and the Midwest (5,032; 13%). U.S. dependent areas made up 458 (1%) of new HIV diagnoses.
Most diagnoses are now highly concentrated in certain geographic areas. More than 50 percent of new HIV diagnoses in 2016 and 2017 occurred in 48 counties, Washington, D.C., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. These 50 jurisdictions are prioritized in phase I of Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America, along with seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas.
Percentage of New HIV Diagnoses in the U.S. and Dependent Areas by Region, 2018:
Living with HIV
In all 50 states and the District of Columbia:
- An estimated 1.1 million people in the United States were living with HIV in the U.S. at the end of 2016, the most recent year for which this information is available.
- About 14% (or 1 in 7) people living with HIV in the U.S. don’t know it and so need testing. Early HIV diagnosis is crucial. Everyone aged 13-64 should be tested at least once. People at higher risk of acquiring (or exposure to) HIV should be tested at least annually. Sexually active gay and bisexual men may benefit from more frequent testing (e.g., every 3-6 months).
- Young people are the most likely to be unaware of their infection. According to a CDC analysis, in 2017, an estimated 54.6% of young people aged 13-24 who were living with HIV, were unaware of their infection.
- Of the people with HIV (diagnosed and undiagnosed) in 2016, about 67% have received some HIV care, 49% were retained in care, and 53% were virally suppressed or undetectable. Having a suppressed or undetectable viral load protects the health of a person living with HIV, preventing disease progression. There is also a major prevention benefit. A person living with HIV who takes HIV medicine daily as prescribed and gets and stays virally suppressed can stay healthy and has effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to HIV-negative partners.
AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths
In 2018, 17,032 people in the U.S. and 6 dependent areas received a stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosis. (The late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus.)
In 2017, there were 16,350 deaths among adults and adolescents with diagnosed HIV in the United States and 6 dependent areas. These deaths may be due to any cause.
Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America
Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America, announced by the President in his State of the Union address on February 5, 2019, is a bold approach to eliminate new HIV infections in our nation. It is built upon the following key strategies or pillars:
- Diagnosing all individuals with HIV as early as possible.
- Treating people with HIV rapidly and effectively to achieve sustained viral suppression.
- Preventing new HIV transmissions by using proven interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and syringe services programs (SSPs).
- Responding quickly to potential HIV outbreaks to get needed prevention and treatment services to people who need them.
The proposed initiative is designed to rapidly increase use of these strategies in 50 jurisdictions (48 counties, Washington, D.C., and San Juan, Puerto Rico) with the highest number of HIV diagnoses as well as seven states with a substantial number of HIV diagnoses in rural areas. The goal is to reduce new HIV infections by 75 percent in 5 years and by 90 percent in 10 years.
a Unless otherwise noted, the term United States (U.S.) includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 6 dependent areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
b The term male-to-male sexual contact is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality. This web content uses the term gay and bisexual men.
c This includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use (men who reported both risk factors)
d Referred to as African American in this fact sheet.
e Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
f This does not include heterosexuals who reported injection drug use.
g This does not include infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use (men who reported both risk factors).
This page uses the regions defined by the U.S. Census Bureau and used in CDC’s National HIV Surveillance System:
Northeast: CT, ME, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Midwest: IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, SD, WI
South: AL, AR, DE, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
West: AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY.
CDC. Deaths: Final Data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 2016; 65(4).
CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2017. HIV Surveillance Report 2018; 29.
CDC. Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2018 (Preliminary). HIV Surveillance Report 2019; 30.
CDC. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2010–2016. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2019; 24(No. 1)
CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2016. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2018; 23(4).