- Approximately 1.2 million people in the U.S. have HIV. About 13 percent of them don’t know it and need testing.
- HIV continues to have a disproportionate impact on certain populations, particularly racial and ethnic minorities and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.
- In 2019, an estimated 34,800 new HIV infections occurred in the United States.
- New HIV infections declined 8% from 37,800 in 2015 to 34,800 in 2019, after a period of general stability.
- In 2019, 36,801 people received an HIV diagnosis in the U.S. and 6 dependent areas—an overall 9% decrease compared with 2015.
- HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed across states and regions. The highest rates of new diagnoses continue to occur in the South.
New HIV Infections (HIV Incidence)
HIV incidence refers to the estimated number of new HIV infections during specified period of time (such as a year), which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a given year. (Some people may have HIV for some time but not know it, so the year they are diagnosed may not be the same as the year they acquired HIV.)
According to the latest estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 34,800 new HIV infections occurred in the United States in 2019.a Annual infections in the U.S. have been reduced by more than two-thirds since the height of the epidemic in the mid-1980s. Further, CDC estimates of annual HIV infections in the United States show hopeful signs of progress in recent years. CDC estimates show new HIV infections declined 8% from 37,800 in 2015 to 34,800 in 2019, after a period of general stability.
Much of this progress was due to larger declines among young gay and bisexual men in recent years. From 2015 to 2019, new infections among young gay and bisexual men (ages 13-24) dropped 33% overall, with declines in young men of all races, but African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos continue to be severely and disproportionately affected.
Key Points: HIV Incidence
- HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 (per 100,000 people).
- By age group, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 13–24 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 (30.1), followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 (16.5).
- By race/ethnicity, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons (42.1), followed by Hispanic/Latino persons (21.7) and persons of multiple races (18.4).
- By sex at birth, the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males (21.0) was 5 times the rate for females (4.5).
- By HIV transmission category, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (66% overall and 81% among males.)
For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.
HIV diagnoses refers to the number of people who have received an HIV diagnosis during a year, regardless of when they acquired HIV. (Some people can live with HIV for years before they are diagnosed; others are diagnosed soon after acquiring HIV.)
According to the latest CDC data, in 2019, 36,801 people received an HIV diagnosis in the United States and dependent areas. From 2015 through 2019, HIV diagnoses decreased by 9% in the United States and 6 dependent areas. However, trends varied for different groups of people.
Key Points: HIV Diagnoses
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM)b are the population most affected by HIV in the U.S.:
- In 2019, MSM accounted for 69% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States.c
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, Black/African American MSM accounted for more than 36% and White MSM accounted for more than 30% of HIV diagnoses among MSM annually.
- In 2019, Black/African American MSM accounted for 26% (9,123) of new HIV diagnoses and 37.9% of diagnoses among all MSM.
- In 2019, Hispanic/Latinod MSM made up 22% (7,820) of new HIV diagnoses and 32.5% of diagnosis among all MSM.
The number of HIV diagnoses decreased among MSM overall, but trends varied by race/ethnicity. From 2015 through 2019:
- Among MSM aged 13–24 years, HIV diagnoses decreased or were stable among all racial/ethnic groups.
- HIV diagnoses increased among American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander MSM, ages 24 and older.
Transgender people accounted for approximately 2% of new HIV diagnoses in 2019.
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the number of diagnoses of HIV infection for transgender adults and adolescents increased.
- In 2019, among transgender adults and adolescents, the largest percentage (93%) of diagnoses of HIV infections was for transgender male-to-female (MTF) people.
- By age, in 2019, the largest percentage (24%) of diagnoses of HIV infection among transgender persons was for transgender MTF adults and adolescents aged 20-24 years, followed by transgender MTF adults and adolescents aged 25-29 years (23%).
Heterosexual people made up 23% of all HIV diagnoses in the U.S. and 6 dependent areas in 2019. Heterosexual men accounted for 7% of new HIV diagnoses and heterosexual women accounted for 16%.
People who inject drugs (PWID) accounted for 7% of new HIV infections in the U.S. and 6 dependent areas in 2019. Men who inject drugs accounted for 4% of new HIV diagnoses, and women who inject drugs accounted for 3%.
By race/ethnicity, Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinx continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by HIV:
- In 2019, Blacks/African Americans represented 13% of the U.S. population but accounted for 44% of new HIV diagnoses.
- In 2019, Hispanics/Latinx represented 18% of the U.S. population but accounted for 30% of new HIV diagnoses.
- From 2015-2019, the number of HIV diagnoses decreased among Black/African American, white, and Asian persons, and persons of multiple races. HIV diagnoses increased among American Indian/Alaska Natives, and remained stable among Hispanic/Latinos and Native Americans/other Pacific Islander persons.
By age group, in 2019, the number of new HIV diagnoses was highest among people aged 25 to 29. From 2015 through 2019, HIV diagnoses increased among persons aged 13-24 years, 35-44 years, and 45-54 years. Diagnoses remained stable among persons aged 25-35 years and persons aged 55 years and over.
By region,e HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed. From 2015 through 2019, the annual number and rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas decreased. In 2019, the rates were 15.2 in the South, 9.4 in the Northeast, 9.2 in the West, and 7.2 in the Midwest.
Most diagnoses are now highly concentrated in certain geographic areas. More than 50 percent of new HIV diagnoses in 2016 and 2017 occurred in 48 counties, Washington, D.C., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. These 50 jurisdictions are prioritized in Phase I of Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America, along with seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas.
Living with HIV
At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million people in the United States aged 13 and older had HIV in the U.S., the most recent year for which this information is available.
According to the latest CDC data:
- About 13% of people with HIV in the U.S. don’t know it and so need testing. Early HIV diagnosis is crucial. Everyone aged 13-64 should be tested at least once. People at higher risk of acquiring (or exposure to) HIV should be tested at least annually. Sexually active gay and bisexual men may benefit from more frequent testing (e.g., every 3-6 months).
- According to another CDC report, of the estimated 1.2 million people with HIV (diagnosed and undiagnosed) in 2019, about 65.9% received some HIV care, 50.1% were retained in care, and 56.8% were virally suppressed or undetectable. Having a suppressed or undetectable viral load protects the health of a person living with HIV, preventing disease progression. There is also a major prevention benefit. People with HIV who take HIV medicine (called antiretroviral therapy or ART) as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long and healthy lives and will not transmit HIV to their HIV-negative partners through sex.
In 2019, there were 15,815 deaths among adults and adolescents with diagnosed HIV in the United States and 6 dependent areas. These deaths may be due to any cause.
For information about how HIV affects your state or county, visit America’s HIV Epidemic Analysis Dashboard (AHEAD), an interactive dashboard that lets you examine data for six Ending the HIV Epidemic indicators that measure both local and national progress toward ending the U.S. HIV epidemic by 2030. With AHEAD, you can filter data several different ways and compare data across county-level jurisdictions.
To learn about the United States’ response to the HIV epidemic, view the HIV National Strategic Plan (HIV Plan). The HIV Plan is a roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic in the United States by 2030. The HIV Plan is the nation’s third consecutive five-year national HIV strategy and covers 2021-2025, with a 10-year goal of reducing new HIV infections by 90% by 2030.
a Unless otherwise noted, the term United States (U.S.) includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 6 dependent areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
b The term male-to-male sexual contact is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality. This web content uses the term gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men.
c This includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use (men who reported both risk factors)
d Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
e This page uses the regions defined by the U.S. Census Bureau and used in CDC’s National HIV Surveillance System:
Northeast: CT, ME, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Midwest: IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, SD, WI
South: AL, AR, DE, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
West: AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY.
CDC. Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Report 2021; 32.
CDC. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2021; 26(No. 1)
CDC. Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data—United States and 6 Dependent Areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2021;26(No. 2).
CDC. NCHHSTP AtlasPlus.